History of JAIBS
From 1994 to 2002
Ⅰ. Foundation and Objectives
The Japan Academy of International Business Studies (JAIBS) was founded in July 1994 as the first academic society to study international business in Japan. In the international arena, especially in the United States of America and Europe, academic endeavor in this field had already taken root. For instance, the Academy of International Business (AIB) and the European International Business Association (EIBA) had long been actively engaged in research and academic exchange. Also on the business front, Japanese corporations had become increasingly internationalized and their global presence had expanded rapidly. It was high time, therefore, for the Japanese academic circle to establish an institution to promote international business studies.
According to the prospectus of the Academy, the Academy aims at providing a global forum of intellectual exchange in interdisciplinary perspectives. Interdisciplinary perspectives in concrete terms means encompassing various academic fields such as international management, comparative business studies, international economics, international relations, international law, international sociology and cross-cultural communication. The Academy is naturally an academic organization with a complement of scholars and researchers; however, it also invites the active contribution of those engaged in actual business to produce a synergistic effect of the two different fabrics.
Since its inception, the Academy has grown considerably, i.e. the initial membership of 341 had increased to 622 by 2002 and is anticipated to rise further in the years to come in light of the keen interest shown by both academic and business people. As the founding president of the Academy Yasuo OKAMOTO (Aoyama Gakuin University) says in its first newsletter published in August 1994, the Academy has and will continue to constitute an active place not only to “receive” from overseas but to “remit” clear and concrete messages and to propose theoretical and empirical frameworks of international business in the global community.
Ⅱ. Annual Conferences from 1994 to 2002
Among a variety of activities of the Academy, the annual conference held in fall each year is without doubt its most important function. The conference theme of each year reflects the business environment of the time and keynote lectures and the papers presented signify the current research focus, concerns and issues that are widely shared both by academicians and business practitioners. It is, therefore, useful to trace back and delineate the history of the Academy’s annual conferences and to see how the Academy has evolved over the past nine years.
The 1st Annual Conference in 1994
Conference Theme 1994: Multinational Enterprises and Globalization
The 1st annual conference was held at Aoyama Gakuin University in Tokyo in November 1994, four months after the launching of the Academy in July. Yasuo OKAMOTO delivered a keynote lecture on the impact of globalization on the multinational enterprise during the 1980’s and the first half of the 1990’s. OKAMOTO focused on the behavior of Japanese, American and European multinationals during that time and analyzed their strengths and weaknesses mainly from the firm-specific advantage viewpoint. He also examined the increasing role of the flexible network between parent companies and subsidiaries and the international strategic alliance among multinationals and indicated the gradual change from the ownership strategy to the resource independency strategy.
There were three other papers based on the conference theme. Toshihiro NISHIGUCHI (Hitotsubashi University) presented a paper on variations of product development organization: the case of auto components development in North America, Europe and Japan. Based on original field data collected from all the passenger car producers and the majority of first-tier suppliers in four component areas in North America, Europe and Japan, he argued that there were distinctive interregional patterns of auto component developing organization. Kenichi YASUMURO (Kobe University of Commerce) made a presentation on the global restructuring of Japanese companies and examined reasons and ways to reengineer their corporate strategies and management systems from the viewpoint of globalization especially under the situation of a rising exchange rate. Ryuichiro INOUE (Obirin University) gave a lecture on multinationals and Asia: the advance of multinationals into Asia and the rise of Asian multinationals and explained international business from a historical viewpoint. A panel discussion was also held to promote the exchange of opinions on the conference theme.
There were also 11 papers that were presented at the conference on three categories: geographically specific papers on India, China, Germany and the U.K.; industry specific papers on automobile, consumer electronics, and mobile communication; other issue specific papers on distribution, trade negotiation, management practice, overseas production, business ethics and human resource management called Mindware.
The 2nd Annual Conference in 1995
Conference Theme 1995: Revisiting Internationalization of Japanese Companies
The 2nd annual conference of the Academy was held at Kobe University in November 1995. It is worth mentioning that in the same year in January, the Great Hanshin Earthquake struck the area and the city of Kobe was severely damaged. At the time the conference was held, Kobe was still in the process of recovering from the major disaster but that did not keep the conference organizer from hosting the conference. As a matter of fact more than 150 participants joined the conference and it was a great success.
There were five special lectures based on the conference theme. Reiji SETO (Takushoku University) presented his view on the multinationalization process of Japanese companies and gave an overview of international expansion of Japanese manufacturing activities from the 1950’s to 1990. Toshikata AMINO (Cross-Cultural Management Institute) presented a case study of Honda and its globalization strategy. Kichiro HAYASHI (Aoyama Gakuin University) delivered a lecture entitled the root problem of intercultural interfaces in Japanese transnationalizing corporations. He indicated how perceptual and communicative gaps had been involved in the process of the globalizing of Japanese corporations and how important these gaps were as current strategic focuses and what strategic changes were being required for Japanese corporations. Takatoshi IMADA (Tokyo Institute of Technology) made a presentation on Japanese companies in Asian countries and on the evaluation of ten thousand local employees. Hideki YOSHIHARA (Kobe University) presented a paper entitled the immature international management.
In addition to the special lectures, 15 papers were presented on diverse topics related to international business including foreign market entry mode of Japanese firms, globalization of financial markets, global R&D management, international technology transfer, and corporate philanthropy.
The 3rd Annual Conference in 1996
Conference Theme 1996: the New Phase of International Competition and Multinationals
The 3rd annual conference of the Academy was held at Yokohama National University in October 1996. This theme was chosen to reflect the advancement of globalization and so-called mega competition in the global market. In parallel to this, there was also a trend toward regionalization and the social impact of multinationals was becoming a serious issue. Recognizing this emerging situation, the conference featured one keynote speech and four special lectures on the conference theme.
Keynote speaker Yasuhiko IKEDA (Ajinomoto Co., Inc.) spoke on the role of top management in the globalization of Japanese companies. Masaru SAITO (Chuo University) presented the outcome of the trend analysis of the global market and Shiro TAKEDA (Yokohama National University) lectured on the competitiveness of multinational enterprises in the 1990’s and three managerial competencies for marketing development. Mitsuru WAKABAYASHI (Nagoya University) presented his view on international leadership for global business and explored possibilities that Japanese managers and executives assigned to managing foreign affiliates could effectively exercise leadership functions in dealing with foreign employees and customers. Norihiko SUZUKI (International Christian University) used a three-dimensional space to develop an overall analytical structure of the international politico-economy which particularly focused upon the growing impact of mutinationalized business on global matters.
Also, 22 papers on various topics were presented covering issues such as the corporate aging problem, foreign investment in eastern Europe and Central Asia, human resources development for Taiwanese local managers, Chinese white-collar employees at Japanese-affiliated companies in China, as well as free trade in international air transport services and the emergence of global partnership.
The 4th Annual Conference in 1997
Conference Theme 1997: Companies in Asia and Global Standard
The 4th annual conference of the Academy was held at Toyo University in Tokyo in November 1997. This conference focused on Asia for the first time since the inception of the Academy.
In this year, a financial crisis broke out across Asia and this completely changed the picture of Asia which had previously been considered to be growing perpetually. It was also quite timely that this conference invited two speakers from overseas. Young-Pyoul PARK (Yonsei University, South Korea) gave a lecture on the foreign investment strategy of Korean Chaebol Firms in Asia. Jianian CHEN (Fudan University, China) compared Japanese companies and American/European companies in terms of how they behaved and conducted business in China. Two speakers from Japan were also invited to speak on the conference theme. Tadao KAGONO (Kobe University) discussed how Japanese subsidiaries were managed based on a survey on how Japanese electrical and electronics manufacturers were operated in Asian countries. Hideo ISHIDA (Keio University) elucidated human resource management of white-collar employees in Japanese multinational corporations.
In addition, 23 papers were presented on diverse topics such as knowledge creation, cultural consequences in Japanese multinationals and lifetime commitment, China’s special economic zones, international marketing duplication and regional headquarters in multinationals’ global strategies.
The 5th Annual Conference in 1998
Conference Theme 1998: Reassessing International Business in Asia
The 5th annual conference of the Academy was held at Kyushu Sangyo University in November 1998. Following the financial and political turmoil in the previous year, the environment surrounding international business in Asia had dramatically changed. This called for a reassessment of how multinationals should tackle business in the region. In this light, the conference assigned four scholars to speak on the theme.
Yukiko FUKAGAWA (Aoyama Gakuin University) explained about structural adjustment and development of corporate governance in Korea. Philippe DEBROUX (Hiroshima City University) gave a lecture on the European Union’s strategy in East and Southeast Asia and discussed its progress, dilemma and uncertainties. Etsuko KATSU (Meiji University) spoke on the restructuring of the strategy of Japanese banks after the Asian Crises and advocated the important role Japanese banks were expected to play not only for Japanese manufacturers in Asia and the Asian economy but also for the internationalization of the yen. Koichi SHIMOKAWA (Hosei University) elucidated the new trend of the Japanese automobile industry in Asia and reevaluated its international division of labor system.
There were also presentations of 23 papers on a variety of topics including a new international trade theory, language inequality in international business, management of Vietnam’s foreign-owned companies, industrial waste disposal problems, and risk management strategy.
The 6th Annual Conference in 1999
Conference Theme 1999: Reconstructing a Global Network of Japanese Corporations
The 6th annual conference of the Academy was held at Nagoya University in October 1999. The Japanese economy as well as the Asian economy as a whole was still in a recessionary stage, whereas the U.S. economy was enjoying an unprecedented boom while Europe was forming a single currency zone. Under such fluctuating circumstances, multinational companies were exerting efforts to reconstruct a business network on a global scale: i.e. increasing outsourcing, streamlining subcontractors, accelerating merger and acquisition, etc.
Based on the conference theme, this conference invited two keynote speakers, Shigeki ISHIKAWA (Brother Industries, Ltd.) and Atsushi NIIMURA (JCB) who introduced their networking activities in North America and in the global market respectively. There were also four speakers from academia who were invited to lecture on the conference theme. Shimin SHI (Nagoya University) sought to uncover global strategies of Japanese automotive parts firms in overseas operations. Shinji HASEGAWA (Waseda University) pointed out how the internationalization model could not properly explain strategic alliances of Japanese firms by discussing three critical defects embedded in the model. Toshihiro NISHIGUCHI (Hitotsubashi University) focused on international networking of middle-sized companies and Jaw-yann TWU (Nagoya University) spoke on triangle and global networking.
There were also 26 papers presented on a wide range of topics covering the global social contribution of Japanese multinationals, transnational linkages between local economies, an empirical study on mind distance of a global corporation, technology innovation in developing a high-tech product market and reexamining the Hofstede model.
The 7th Annual Conference in 2000
Conference Theme 2000: Japanese Companies and International Restructuring
The 7th annual conference of the Academy was held at the University of Tokyo in October 2000. The end of the 20th century was witnessing an increasing trend of international alliance and M&A in many industries throughout the world. This was giving rise to a limited number of large companies in some industries while producing a complex inter-company alliance in other industries. Against this backdrop, this conference asked six speakers to address the issue of international restructuring of companies.
Takahiro FUJIMOTO (the University of Tokyo) analyzed international alliances and mergers between automobile manufacturers and criticized the prevalent “global oligopoly” scenario, in which less than ten of the largest auto firms could survive. Takashi NEMOTO (Meiji University) introduced a survey result for global learning in 200 Japanese companies, focusing on knowledge sharing between headquarters and overseas subsidiaries. Masaru SAKUMA (Chuo University) explained the outcome of a comparative study of white-collar superior-subordinate relations in Japanese multinationals at home and abroad. Jiro KOKURYO (Keio University), Ryuji YASUDA (A. T. Kearney) and Kiyoshi YAMAKAWA (Sony Corporation) spoke respectively on restructuring in information and communication industries, global mega-mergers, and management in Sony.
There were also 38 paper presentations on topics such as stakeholders in Japanese shipping companies, global R&D and communication in the pharmaceutical industry, China’s admission to the World Trade Organization, integration of cultural diversity by global managers, global-brand companies, Japanese joint ventures of the apparel industry in China, and psychological aspects of Japanese expatriates management.
The 8th Annual Conference in 2001
Conference Theme 2001: Globalization for Middle-sized Companies
The 8th annual conference of the Academy was held at Fukushima University in October 2001. This conference theme was quite appropriate since Fukushima prefecture, the venue of this conference, was a cradle for many middle-sized companies. Also not only large-scale companies but also mid-sized companies in Japan were expanding their business overseas accelerated by internet and information technology.
Three speakers from academia and two from industry were invited to address the conference theme. Kenichi YASUMURO (Kobe University of Commerce) showed the result of a survey on the location strategies of Japanese mid-sized multinational manufacturers in the United States. Shinichi UKAI (Waseda University) spoke on small-scale factories in Japan and Toshiaki SUGITA (Konan University) introduced an Asian-type business model of mid-sized companies. Hajime KOBAYASHI (Toray Corporate Business Research Inc.) elucidated the competitive advantage of Italian mid-sized enterprises based on his experience of managing Toray’s subsidiary in Italy. Takahiro KITAJIMA (Yamagata Printing Co. Ltd.) also explained how the printing business could constitute a global networking industry.
There were also 35 papers presented on a wide range of topics including brand management systems of P&G and Kao, a case of the liner business of Japanese shipping companies, international comparison of human resource management of R&D engineers, nationalization of the Anglo-Iranian oil company, environmental problems faced by Japanese affiliated manufacturing companies in England, France and Germany, the implication of Bridgestone’s tire recall in the United States for international business, electronics manufacturing service business model, business models by the internet P2P concept, and the impact of IT in South Korean organizations.
The 9th Annual Conference in 2002
Conference Theme 2002: The Chinese Economy and Japanese Companies
The 9th annual conference of the Academy was held at Kobe University of Commerce in October 2002. This year commemorated the thirtieth anniversary of Japan’s normalization of relationships with China. In recent years, China, dubbed the factory of the world, has been making leaps and bounds in business and economy. In product lines such as consumer electronics, audio, cell phones, motor bikes and computers in which Japan was a forerunner in the past, China is continuing to erode Japanese companies’ market share. Under such circumstances, it was indeed timely to shed light on China in this year’s conference.
To address the issue involving Japanese companies in China, it invited three keynote speakers from industry and three contributors to the conference theme from academia, namely: Motoharu IUE (Sanyo Electric Co. Ltd.), Hideki MASUDA (Omron Corporation), Tomohisa MAEKAWA (International Economy & Work Research Institute), Mitsuhiro SEKI (Hitotsubashi University), Chunli LEE (Aichi University) and Tan HASHIDA (Tokyo International University). In addition, there were as many as 46 papers presented on diverse topics.
Ⅲ. Other Activities
Other activities of the Academy include publications, chapter-based workshops, awards and international exchanges. Each year the Academy publishes its journal called the Annual Bulletin of the Japan Academy of International Business Studies. It features screened articles written by speakers and paper presenters in the previous year’s conference.
In addition to the annual conference, there are also chapter-based workshops. The Academy has two chapters: one in the Kanto area including Tokyo and the other in the Kansai area. Each chapter has been active in hosting its own workshops almost every month. They are providing excellent opportunities for brainstorming and discussions in a less formal atmosphere. The Academy also gives awards to outstanding research papers and books contributing to the advancement of international business studies. (A list of the JAIBS awards is attached at the end of the article.)
As far as international exchange is concerned, the Academy has always been eager to maintain close ties with overseas counterparts. As a matter of fact, President Kenichi ENATSU (Waseda University) of the Academy had the honor of giving a keynote lecture entitled “the Future of International Business” at the international conference of the Korean Academy of International Business in June 2003. At this occasion, he confirmed with Chairman Shin KIM (Kyung Hee University) the promotion of academic exchange between the two institutions.
Ⅳ. The 10th Annual Conference in 2003 and Beyond: the Academy Leaping Forward in the Era of Globalization
At the time of writing, the annual conference will be held at Meiji University, Tokyo in October 2003. This year’s conference theme is the Rejuvenation of Japanese Industries and Corporations: Global Perspectives. Two special lectures are scheduled to be given: Hironori SHIRAMIZU (Toyota Motor Company) will talk on the globalization of Toyota and its challenge and Suehiro NAKAMURA (Sony-Nakamura Research Center) will touch upon rejuvenating industry through production. Three special presentations are also slated by Masaaki KOTABE (Temple University), Haruo HORAGUCHI (Hosei University) and Nobutaka KAZAMA (Meiji University) respectively. 28 papers on various topics by professors, researchers and business executives are also expected to be presented. There will also be sessions for Ph.D. candidates.
Furthermore, an event that will be unique to this conference will be held to exhibit valuable items such as books, papers, journals that are considered to have made an outstanding contribution to the advancement of international business studies as well as pictures of conference participants with world famous researchers and CEOs.
As the current President Kenichi ENATSU rightly put it, the Academy is keen on expanding its ties with overseas academic institutions, especially in the neighboring countries in the Asia Pacific rim, such as the Korean Academy of International Business and to promote scholarly exchange and pursue cross-cultural research in the field of international business. Looking beyond the horizon, the Japan Academy of International Business Studies is certain to leap forward in this era of globalization.
List of JAIBS Awards
1995 JAIBS Academic Award for the Most Promising Book and Paper of the Year
Etsuko HAYASHI, Strategic Human Resource Development in a Time of Technological Change
Nobuaki MATSUNAGA, Economic Development and the Growth of Firms
Mitsuhide SHIRAKI, International Human Resource Management in Japanese Corporations
1995 JAIBS Academic Award for the Most Promising Paper of the Year
Fumiko KUROKAWA, International Strategy of Japanese Enterprises in Connection with Deindustrialization
Tatsuo MORI, Problems of Regional Headquarters in Japanese MNEs
1996 JAIBS Academic Award for the Best Book of the Year
Chunli LEE, The Chinese Automobile Industry: the Evolution of Manufacturing System and the Technological Strategy, Tokyo: Shinzansha Publishing House, 1997.
1996 JAIBS Academic Award for the Most Promising Paper of the Year
Jung Dong PARK, Total Review of the Special Economic Zone, Shinhyoron, 1996
1998 JAIBS Academic Award for the Best Book of the Year
LEE Cheng-Wen, Multinational Enterprise and International Social Contribution, Bunshindo, 1998
1998 JAIBS Academic Award for the Most Promising Paper of the Year
Masahiro IDA, Electronic Money and International Business: The Present Stage and Possibilities for Declining Sovereign States
1999 JAIBS Academic Award for the Best Book of the Year
Shinji HASEGAWA, Internalization Theory of Multinational Enterprise and Strategic Alliances, Dobunkan, 1998
HAO Yan Shu, Economic Development and the Japanese Production System in China, Minerva Shobo, 1999
1999 JAIBS Academic Award for the Most Promising Paper of the Year
Sadanori ARIMURA, How Matsushita Electric and Sony Manage Global R&D
2000 JAIBS Academic Award for the Best Book of the Year
CHEN Jin, Growth Strategies of Chinese Automotive Manufacturers, Shinzansha, 2000
2000 JAIBS Academic Award for the Most Promising Paper of the Year
Ying ZHU, Inappropriate Technology Transfer to the Backward Country ― A Case Analysis of Shanghai-Mitsubishi Elevator Company
2001 JAIBS Academic Award for the Best Book of the Year
Tamami IMANISHI, The International Business of Travel Companies, Koyo Shobo, 2001
Akio TOUDA, Strategic Alliances of Global Corporation, Minerva Shobo, 2000
2001 JAIBS Academic Award for the Most Promising Paper of the Year
Tomokazu SEKI, A Study on the Restructuring of the Theory of the Multinational Enterprise: Over the Background of the “Patent Effect Denial” in the Internalization Theory of Reading School
2002 JAIBS Academic Award for the Best Book of the Year
Haruo HORAGUCHI, Globalism and Japanese Firms: Multinational Enterprises as Organizations, University of Tokyo Press, 2002.
Naotoshi UMENO, Oil Concessions in the Middle East and Political Risk: A Historical Study of the Oil Nationalization in Iran
2002 JAIBS Academic Award for the Most Promising Paper of the Year
Tomofumi AMANO, Strategy of Global Production Division and Restructuring of Domestic Business Structure: Creating Comparative Advantage in Global Strategy
The Japan Academy Prize and the Imperial Prize
Apart from those awards mentioned above, it is worth noting that Takahiro FUJIMOTO’s book The Evolution of a Manufacturing System at Toyota (Oxford University Press) was awarded the 92nd Japan Academy Prize in 2002. This was also the Imperial Prize winning work for social sciences of the same year.
（Emiko MAGOSHI, J. F. Oberlin University）